82091 - Re: light

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Posted by ben on November 12, 2009 at 20:11:34
(Message posted from "unknown" at 137.150.100.49) - explanation

In Reply to: "light" posted by Ben Ito on November 10, 2009 at 15:09:59

Light
Ben T. Ito
November 12, 2009

1. Introduction

Maxwell (1864) describes an electromagnetic wave structure of light formed by the motion of an ether, composed of matter yet Maxwell’s ether does not physically exist since light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter. Lenard’s photoelectric effect proves light is composed of particles that energy is dependent on only the frequency (Lenard, Intro) yet the energy of Maxwell’s electromagnetic radiation is dependent on the frequency and amplitude. Planck (1901) derives an energy element, that is dependent on only the frequency, using Boltzmann’s thermodynamic entropy equation but gas molecules do not oscillate at the frequency of light. In Einstein’s general relativity (1916), Einstein uses the electric and magnetic curl equations that are derived using Faraday and Ampere induction laws yet light is not formed by induction. In Einstein’s special relativity (1920), Einstein states that time and distance are not independent of the condition of motion of the body of reference which is used to justify light propagating in vacuum but Einstein’s time-space does address the ether problem since according to Huygens’ propagation mechanism of light, the formation of waves by the motion of an ether, composed of matter, represents the propagation of light.


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2. Maxwell

In Maxwell’s paper “Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” (1864), the motion of a luminiferous medium (ether) composed of matter forms Maxwell’s electromagnetic radiation (Maxwell, intro) but light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter (solid, liquid or gas) which is experimental proof that Maxwell’s electromagnetic radiation does not exist.


Maxwell states that transverse waves form polarized light.


“the disturbance at any point is transverse to the direction of propagation, and such waves may have all the properties of polarized light.” (Maxwell, part VI).

“The undulatory theory of light requires us to admit this kind of elasticity in the luminiferous medium, in order to account for transverse vibrations. (Maxwell, Part III).

A transverse wave is formed by the oscillation of a luminiferous ether, composed of matter but polarized light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which is experimental proof that Maxwell’s transverse waves do not physically exist and cannot be used to describe polarization.


Maxwell describes the propagation of light with the following equation:


“F = A cos [(2đ/ë)(z - Vt)] ” (Maxwell, part VI)....... 1


Maxwell’s propagation equation (1) is invalid since the ether that forms Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave does not physically exist.


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3. Planck
http://www.physics.pdx.edu/~pmoeck/pdf/planck1901.pdf

In Planck’s paper “On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum” (1901), Planck derives an energy element using Boltzmann’s thermodynamic entropy equation (Planck, part 1),
S = k log R.......... 2

Planck uses combination theory to derive,


R = (N + P)^[N + P] / (N^N • P^P)....3


Equations 2 and 3 are used with U = NU and U = Pe to form Planck’s thermodynamic entropy equation,


S = k{(1 + U/e) log (1 + U/e) - (U/e) log (U/e)}....... 4


(Planck, part 2). Planck’s energy element,
e = hv,........ 5

is derived using equation 4. Planck’s energy element (5) is derived using Boltzmann’s gas molecule entropy equation (2) but gas molecules do not oscillate at the frequency of light. Planck’s energy element cannot be used to represent the energy of light.

.
4. Einstein Energy Quanta

In Einstein’s paper, “On a Heuristic Point of View about the Creation and Conversion of Light” (1905), Einstein uses Wien’s blackbody radiation equation to derive a blackbody entropy equation,

“S - S' = [E/(âf)] ln (v/v')......... 6

This equation shows that the entropy of a monochromatic radiation of sufficiently small density varies with volume according to the same rules as the entropy of a perfect gas or of a dilute solution.” (Einstein, part 4).

Boltzmann’s thermodynamic entropy equation and Einstein’s probability (W) are used (Einstein, part 5),

S - S' = (R/N) ln W........ & ........W = ( v/v')^n ”........ 7a,b

Einstein states:


“Monochromatic radiation of low density behaves--as long as Wien’s radiation formula is valid--in a thermodynamic sense, as if it consisted of mutually independent energy quanta of magnitude RBf/N.” (Einstein, part 6).

Einstein’s energy quanta (RBf/N) contains Boltzmann’s gas molecule constants N and R but gas molecules do not oscillate at the frequency of light. Einstein’s energy quanta cannot be used to represent the energy of light.


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5. Einstein General Relativity

In Einstein’s paper “Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity” (1916), Einstein uses the electric and magnetic curl equations,


“§ 20. Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Field Equations for Free Space ………..

- dH/dt = curl E …........& dE/dt + j = curl H’............8a,b



(Einstein*, § 20). The electric and magnetic curl equations (equ 8a,b) are derived using Faraday and Ampere induction laws (Jackson, p. 210 & 218) but light is not formed by induction.


Einstein uses Maxwell’s electromagnetic radiation that is formed by the motion of a luminiferous medium, composed of matter (solid, liquid or gas).


“the disturbance at any point is transverse to the direction of propagation, and such waves may have all the properties of polarized light.” (Maxwell*, part VI).

“The undulatory theory of light requires us to admit this kind of elasticity in the luminiferous medium, in order to account for transverse vibrations. (Maxwell, Part III).

Light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter which is experimental proof that Einstein's general relativity, that uses Maxwell’s electromagnetic radiation, is physically invalid.

.

6. Einstein Special Relativity

In Einstein’s special relativity (1920), Einstein states that the time and distance are not independent of the condition of motion of the body of reference which is used to justify light propagating in vacuum (vacuo).

“THE RESULTS of the last three sections that the apparent incompatibility of the law of propagation of light with the principle of relativity (Section VII) has been derived by means of a consideration which borrowed two unjustiable hypotheses from classical mechanics; these as follows:

1. The time-interval (time) between two events is independent of the condition of motion of the body of reference.

2. The space-interval (distance) between two points of a rigid body is independent of the condition of motion of the body of reference.


If we drop these hypotheses, then the dilemma of Section VII disappears, because the theorem of the addition of velocities derived in Section VI becomes invalid. The possibility presents itself that the law of propagation of light in vacuo may be compatible with the principle of relativity.” (Einstein**, chap. 11).

The problem of light propagating in vacuum is that vacuum is void of matter which conflicts with Huygens’ wave propagation mechanism of light (Huygens, p. 11) that waves are formed by the motion of a medium (ether), composed of matter. Einstein’s infinitesimal alteration of the time and distance, using Lorentz equations (Einstein**, chap 11) does not justify light propagating in vacuum since Huygens’ propagation law uses waves formed by the motion of an ether composed of matter yet light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter.


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7. References

Einstein, Albert. “On a Heuristic Point of View about the Creation and Conversion of Light”. Annalen der Physik. 17: 132-148. 1905.

Einstein*, Albert. “Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity”. Annalen der Physik. 47. 1916.
http://www.alberteinstein.info/gallery/pdf/CP6Doc30_English_pp146-200.pdf

Einstein**, Albert. “Relativity: Special and General Theory”. Translated by Robert Lawson. Henry Holt. 1920.
http://www.bartleby.com/173/

Fresnel, Augustin. "Memorie su la Diffraction de la Lumiere". French Academy of Science. 1818.

Huygens, Christiann. “Treatise on Light”. French Academy of Science. 1690.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14725/14725-h/14725-h.htm

Jackson, J. K. “Classical Electrodynamics”. John Wiley. 2nd ed. 1962.


Lenard, Philipp. Annalen der Physik. 8: 149 - 198. 1902.

Maxwell, James. “Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field”. Royal Society Transactions. Vol. CLV. 1864.

Maxwell*, James. “On Physical Lines of Force”. Philosophical Magazine, Volume XXI. 1862.

Niven, W. D. "The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell". Dover Pub. 1994.

Nye, Mary Jo. “The Question of the Atom” Tomash Pub. 1984.

Planck, Max. “On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum”. Annalen der Physik. IV, 4: 553-563. 1901.
http://www.physics.pdx.edu/~pmoeck/pdf/planck1901.pdf


Alice Paul ............... Lucy Burns


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